Testes Cancer

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Treatment

Surgical Treatment of Prostate Cancer Offered at the University of Chicago

 

Treatment Options for Primary (Newly-diagnosed) Prostate Cancer
Radical Prostatectomy

  • This involves removal of the prostate, the adjoining seminal vesicles, and, often, the surrounding lymph nodes.
  • At the University of Chicago, radical prostatectomies are performed in a robotic assisted laparoscopic (minimally-invasive) manner.
  • Every attempt is made to spare the nerves that enable sexual function. Nerver preservation is something that you will discuss with the physician to see if you are a candidate for this procedure.
  • For men with locally-advanced, high risk, or aggressive cancers, we offer a variety of treatments that can be given in addition to surgery.


Brachytherapy and Radiotherapy

  • This involves the use of precisely targeted radiation to destroy prostate cancer tissue.
  • Men undergoing external beam radiation therapy undergo approximately 42 treatments lasting 15 minutes each, in which a beam of radiation is focused with exquisite accuracy on the prostate with the intent to destroy prostate cancer cells.
  • Men undergoing brachytherapy (seed implant radiation therapy) undergo a 2 hour outpatient operation in which radioactive seeds are placed through the perineum under ultrasound guidance into the prostate. The seeds remain active for several months during which time they emit a focused dose of radiation with the intent to destroy prostate cancer cells.

 

Treatment Options for Recurrent Prostate Cancer after Radiotherapy
Salvage Prostatectomy

  • This involves removal of the prostate, the adjoining seminal vesicles, and, often, the surrounding lymph nodes.
  • At the University of Chicago, salvage prostatectomies are performed in an open manner.
  • Every attempt is made to spare the nerves that enable sexual function and preserve continence, this is quite difficult in the salvage procedure.


Surgeons at the University of Chicago are trained in the most up-to-date and technologically-advanced methods of treating prostate cancers. At your appointment, your surgeon will be glad to discuss all of these treatment options with you, as well as any applicable clinical trial or experimental therapies.
 

Treatment

Treatment Plans for Male Incontinence

 

Treatment of Urinary Incontinence

 

There are many different types of urinary incontinence, and each type responds differently to treatment. For this reason, it is important that a correct diagnosis be made before beginning therapy.

Treatment of Urge Incontinence

 

Once your physician has diagnosed your urge incontinence, then certain treatment plans are most appropriate. Some common therapies are listed below.

 

 

Treatment of Stress Incontinence

 

Stress incontinence occurs when the sphincter muscle is not closing tightly enough around the urethra. Urine is then able to leak out more easily. Leakage occurs particularly when abdominal pressures rise such as with a cough, sneeze, or laugh. The most common treatments for male and female stress incontinence focus on improving the resistance in the urethra, so that it is more difficult or impossible for urine to leak. Since men and women have different urologic anatomies, their treatments for stress incontinence also differ.

 

Female Stress Incontinence


Male Stress Incontinence


Treatment of Mixed Incontinence

 

After diagnosing your mixed incontinence, your urologist will identify and treat the symptoms that are causing you the most trouble. The treatments available for mixed incontinence are the same as those available for stress incontinence and urge incontinence.

 

Treatment of Overflow Incontinence

 

The treatments for overflow incontinence depend on the cause of the leakage. Overflow incontinence can occur for two reasons – either an obstruction blocks the outflow of urine from the bladder or the bladder loses its ability to squeeze properly. In either case, urine builds up in the bladder and intervention is absolutely required in order to protect the future health of the kidneys.

 

When an obstruction blocks the outflow of urine from the bladder:When the bladder loses its contractile power and can no longer squeeze:
  • A catheter may be temporarily or permanently used to empty the bladder.
  • Blockages caused by an enlarged prostate may occasionally improve with medications.
  • The only way to resolve the problem permanently is to remove the obstruction so that urine can flow normally again.
  • Most of the time, blockages must be treated surgically.
  • A catheter must be used to drain the bladder.
  • Several options exist for those who need a catheter to empty their bladders:
        Indwelling transurethral Foley catheter
        Indwelling suprapubic tube
        Intermittent catheterization of the urethra
        Intermittent catheterization of another     channel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Treatment

Surgical Treatment of Testes Cancer

 

Radical Orchiectomy(click here for FAQs about Radical Orchiectomy)

  • This involves removal of the testes, the surrounding capsule, and the spermatic cord – the structure that connects the testes to the abdomen.
  • These are performed through an incision in the lower part of the abdomen: the scrotum is left untouched. This is to prevent spread of testes cancer cells. A prosthetic testes can be placed at the time of surgery.
  • After surgery, the patient is advised to be sedentary for several days and is given and ice pack and athletic supporter to help prevent untoward bleeding..
  • If appropriate, sperm banking before orchiectomy should be considered.


RPLND [Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection](click here for FAQs about RPLND)

  • This involves removal of the lymph tissue from the retroperitoneum, the part of the abdomen behind the intestines. All, or part of the lymph tissue (either a standard or a modified template RPLND) may be removed. This operation involves surgery close to the kidneys, the ureters, the intestines, large blood vessels, and nerves that assist with reproduction.
  • The RPLND can be performed laparoscopically (through a small incision) or open (through a large incision). The large incision may be in the middle of the abdomen or maybe up near the lungs. The actual location and approach will be a topic of discussion for you and your physician.
  • RPLNDs performed after chemotherapy are much more complicated and the rate of side effects (such as lymphocele, injury to surrounding structures, bleeding) are higher. Post-chemo-RPLNDs are not performed laparoscopically.
  • Doctors at the University of Chicago perform nerve-sparing RPLNDs, so that normal reproduction can occur after treatment is complete.

Treatment

Treatment Plans for Female Incontinence

 

Treatment of Urinary Incontinence

 

There are many different types of urinary incontinence, and each type responds differently to treatment. For this reason, it is important that a correct diagnosis be made before beginning therapy.

Treatment of Urge Incontinence

 

Once your physician has diagnosed your urge incontinence, then certain treatment plans are most appropriate. Some common therapies are listed below.

 

 

Treatment of Stress Incontinence

 

Stress incontinence occurs when the sphincter muscle is not closing tightly enough around the urethra. Urine is then able to leak out more easily. Leakage occurs particularly when abdominal pressures rise such as with a cough, sneeze, or laugh. The most common treatments for male and female stress incontinence focus on improving the resistance in the urethra, so that it is more difficult or impossible for urine to leak. Since men and women have different urologic anatomies, their treatments for stress incontinence also differ.

 

Female Stress Incontinence


Male Stress Incontinence


Treatment of Mixed Incontinence

 

After diagnosing your mixed incontinence, your urologist will identify and treat the symptoms that are causing you the most trouble. The treatments available for mixed incontinence are the same as those available for stress incontinence and urge incontinence.

 

Treatment of Overflow Incontinence

 

The treatments for overflow incontinence depend on the cause of the leakage. Overflow incontinence can occur for two reasons – either an obstruction blocks the outflow of urine from the bladder or the bladder loses its ability to squeeze properly. In either case, urine builds up in the bladder and intervention is absolutely required in order to protect the future health of the kidneys.

 

When an obstruction blocks the outflow of urine from the bladder:When the bladder loses its contractile power and can no longer squeeze:
  • A catheter may be temporarily or permanently used to empty the bladder.
  • Blockages caused by an enlarged prostate may occasionally improve with medications.
  • The only way to resolve the problem permanently is to remove the obstruction so that urine can flow normally again.
  • Most of the time, blockages must be treated surgically.
  • A catheter must be used to drain the bladder.
  • Several options exist for those who need a catheter to empty their bladders:
        Indwelling transurethral Foley catheter
        Indwelling suprapubic tube
        Intermittent catheterization of the urethra
        Intermittent catheterization of another     channel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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